Pobierz Live The Life V0.5.8
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Pobierz Live the Life v0.5.8
The Gallup World Poll, which has been our principal source of data for assessing lives around the globe, has not been able to conduct the face-to-face interviews that were previously used for more than three-quarters of the countries surveyed. Conversion from computer-assisted personal interviews (CAPI) to computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI) has been difficult and time-consuming. The 2020 round of surveys is about two-thirds as large as usual. The change of mode does not affect the industrial countries, most of which were already being surveyed by telephone in previous years. Earlier research on the effect of survey mode has shown that answers to some questions differ between telephone and in-person surveys, while answers to well-being questions were subject to very small mode effects. Recent UK large-sample evidence found life satisfaction to be only 0.04 points higher by telephone than in-person interviewing. However, the shift from personal interviews to phone surveys may in some countries have changed the pool of respondents in various ways, only some of which can be adjusted for by weighting techniques. This leads us to be somewhat cautious when interpreting the results reported for 2020. But the overall rankings for 2020, especially among the top countries, are unlikely to have been altered by pure mode effects, since most of the top countries were already being reached by telephone surveys prior to 2020, while the countries that shifted to telephone mode in 2020 (marked by an asterisk beside their country names in Table 2.1) are grouped further down in the rankings.
For the United Kingdom, average Gallup World Poll life evaluation fell from 7.16 in 2019 to 6.80 in 2020, while the Eurobarometer life satisfaction measure fell from 7.74 to 7.36, with both changes being of statistical significance. The UK Office for National Statistics (ONS) has recently published life satisfaction, anxiety, happiness yesterday, and the extent to which people think that the things they do in their lives are worthwhile, all asked on the same 0 to 10 response scale, based on large samples drawn from the Labour Force Survey. These are probably the largest samples from any country enabling comparisons between each of the first three quarters of 2020 with the corresponding quarters of the 2019. Given the second wave of COVID-19 infections and deaths that started at the end of the summer, it is expected that all three measures will be worse in Q4. But the average results for the first three quarters are the data most comparable with the other surveys, all of which were undertaken in the first three quarters of the year. The ONS data, based on much larger samples, show a life satisfaction drop of 0.13 points on the 0 to 10 scale compared to 0.36 for the Gallup World Poll and 0.38 for the Eurobarometer. All three surveys provide a fairly consistent picture of moderate, but statistically significant, reductions in life evaluations using different surveys and question wording. The ONS estimates provide additional value from their large sample size, exposing quarterly patterns that match the pandemic stages and revealing larger but more quickly recovering changes for the emotions than for life evaluations. Between the two emotions, anxiety was affected almost twice as much as happiness yesterday.
To get some idea of the possible size of Q4 drops in life evaluations, Figure 2.2 brings together the ONS quarterly estimates of life satisfaction with the monthly Cantril ladder estimates drawn from the ICL/YouGov survey. The monthly data confirm the expectation that Q4 life satisfaction fell as infections, deaths, and lockdowns were all rising. It also shows an increase in December, when optimism was growing about the possibilities for vaccine efficacy and delivery. The 95% confidence intervals for the estimates are shown by vertical bars. The confidence regions for the ONS estimates are much tighter because their samples included more than 25,000 respondents in each quarter.
Table 2.3 shows the results of individual-level estimation of a version of the model that we regularly use to explain differences at the national level. We use the same column structure as in our usual Table 2.1, while adding more rows to introduce variables that help to explain differences among individuals but which average out at the national level. The first three columns show separate equations for life evaluations, positive affect and negative affect. The fourth column is a repeat of the life evaluation equation with positive and negative emotions as additional independent variables, reflecting their power to influence how people rate the lives they are leading.
If we take a broad view of subjective well-being, we should consider, as is done in Chapter 8, extending our measure of national well-being to adjust for international differences in life expectancy. Chapter 8 proposes direct adjustment for the length of life in the measurement of national well-being. Doing so in the way suggested would increase the trend growth of national well-being where life expectancy has been improving, reflecting that in countries with greater life expectancy people have longer to enjoy being alive. It also strengthens the links between COVID-19 death rates and national well-being beyond their impact on the life evaluations of those still living. 041b061a72